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Guide to the Highland Hospital Records, 1906-1981 (AR.0011)

Abstract

Highland Hospital was a premiere residential psychiatric hospital located in Asheville, North Carolina, owned and operated by Duke University from 1944 to 1980. The bulk of the collection contains records pertaining to the acquisition, administration, expansion of the hospital in the mid-twentieth century, and the sale of the facility in 1980. This includes agreements, annual reports, architectural plans, appraisals, audits, brochures, budgets, clippings, correspondence, data on lawsuits resulting from fire and accident, deeds, fiscal reports, insurance papers, minutes, monthly statements, newsletters, photographs, programs, publications, reports, as well as sale and lease papers. Major subjects in this collection include A. S. Brower, Robert S. Carroll, R. Charman Carroll, and the Duke University Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. The materials date from 1906 to 1981 with the majority of the records including the period between 1939 to 1957 and 1978 to 1980.

Descriptive Summary

Call Number
AR.0011
Title
Highland Hospital Records
Date
1906-1981
Creator
Highland Hospital (Asheville, N.C.).
Extent
4.3 Linear Feet (2 cartons, 1 half manuscript box, 1 map folder, 1 map tube)
Repository
Duke University Medical Center Archives

Collection Overview

Contains administrative files from the operation, expansion, and sale of Highland Hospital (Asheville, North Carolina) for the years between 1906 and 1980. Types of materials include agreements, annual reports, architectural plans, appraisals, audits, brochures, budgets, clippings, correspondence, data on lawsuits resulting from fire and accident, deeds, fiscal reports, insurance papers, minutes, monthly statements, newsletters, photographs, programs, publications, reports, as well as sale and lease papers. Major subjects in this collection include A. S. Brower, Robert S. Carroll, R. Charman Carroll, and the Duke University Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. The materials date from 1906 to 1981 with the majority of the records including the period between 1939 to 1957 and 1978 to 1980.

Arrangement Note

Organized into the following series: Administrative Records, 1906-1978; Records Pertaining to Sale, 1978-1980; Blueprints, Maps, and Architectural Plans, 1938-1979.

Restrictions on Access & Use

Some collections are stored off site and must be requested at least 48 business hours in advance for retrieval.

Access Restrictions

This collection contains materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals or IRB approval may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which Duke University assumes no responsibility.

Records that have been processed may be consulted with the permission of the Medical Center Archivist.

Materials in box 3 are restricted and can only be accessed with the permission of the Medical Center Archivist.

Use Restrictions

Copyright for Official University records is held by Duke University; all other copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.

Contents of the Collection

1. Administrative Records, 1906-1978

Series Scope and Contents: Includes records pertaining to the transfer of ownership to Duke University, as well as the day-to-day operation and expansion of the hospital. Records include agreements, annual reports, architectural plans, appraisals, audits, brochures, budgets, clippings, correspondence, data on lawsuits resulting from fire and accidents, deeds, fiscal reports, historical essays, insurance papers, maps, minutes, monthly statements, newsletters, photographs, programs, publications, reports, as well as sale and lease papers. The files, among other things, include a glimpse of the perception of mental disorders and approaches to psychiatric treatment in mid-twentieth century America and the trials of running a small, ever expanding hospital. The records do not contain information on particular patients unless they died at the hospital and that information does not include patient records or notes. Topics include the 1948 fire, staffing issues, local real estate, mid-century modern furniture, and institutional kitchens. The record dates range from 1906-1978. The majority of the records are from 1939-1957.

Blank Forms, circa 1967, undated
Box 1
Broughton Hospital Resident Training Program at HH: Agreement, 1975
Box 1
Certificate of Incorporation, 1944, 1978
Box 1
Clippings: Fire, 1948
Box 1
Clippings: General, 1946, 1951
Box 1
Commemorative Programs and Ephemera, 1934-1955
Box 1
Correspondence: Attorney, Wright, G. H., 1938-1940
Box 1
Correspondence: Carroll-Potter Hall Construction, 1954
Box 1
Correspondence: Carroll-Potter Hall Construction, 1955-1958
Box 1
Correspondence: Carroll-Potter Hall Furniture, 1954-1955
Box 1
Correspondence: Fire, Legal, 1949
Box 1
Correspondence: Fire Safety, 1948-1949
Box 1
Correspondence: Founder, Carroll, Robert S., 1946-1947
Box 1
Correspondence: Incoming Medical Director, Bennett, B. T., 1945
Box 1
Correspondence: Medical Director, Bennett, B. T., 1946
Box 1
Correspondence: Medical Director, Bennett, B. T., 1947
Box 1
Correspondence: Medical Director, Bennett, B. T., 1948
Box 1
Correspondence: Medical Director, Carroll, R. C., 1949
Box 1
Correspondence: Medical Director, Carroll, R. C., 1950
Box 1
Correspondence: Medical Director, Carroll, R. C., 1951
Box 1
Correspondence: Medical Director, Carroll, R. C., 1952
Box 1
Correspondence: Medical Director, Carroll, R. C., 1953
Box 1
Correspondence: Medical Director, Carroll, R. C., 1954
Box 1
Correspondence: Medical Director, Carroll, R. S., 1944
Box 1
Correspondence: Medical Director, Carroll, R. S., 1945
Box 1
Correspondence: President, Duke University, Flowers, R. L., 1939-1941
Box 1
Correspondence: President, Brower, A. S., 1938, 1943-1944
Box 1
Correspondence: President, Brower, A. S., 1945
Box 1
Correspondence: President, Brower, A. S., 1946
Box 1
Correspondence: President, Brower, A. S., 1947
Box 1
Correspondence: President, Brower, A. S., 1948
Box 1
Correspondence: President, Brower, A. S., 1949
Box 1
Correspondence: President, Brower, A. S., 1950
Box 1
Correspondence: President, Brower, A. S., 1951
Box 1
Correspondence: President, Brower, A. S., 1953
Box 1
Correspondence: Rumbough Property Title Transfer (Beaverdam), 1945, 1950-1952
Box 1
Correspondence: Treasurer and Secretary, Sheffler, S. (tax assessment), 1942
Box 1
Correspondence: Treasurer, Sheffler, S., 1945
Box 1
Correspondence: Treasurer, Sheffler, S., 1946
Box 1
Correspondence: Treasurer, Sheffler, S., 1947
Box 1
Correspondence: Treasurer, Sheffler, S., 1948
Box 1
Correspondence: Treasurer, Sheffler, S., 1949
Box 1
Correspondence: Treasurer, Sheffler, S., 1950
Box 1
Correspondence: Treasurer, Sheffler, S. (1950-1951 IRS forms), 1950-1952
Box 1
Correspondence: Treasurer, Sheffler, S., 1951
Box 1
Correspondence: Treasurer, Sheffler, S., 1953
Box 1
Deeds, 1939 (includes Indenture), 1939, 1965
Box 1
Deeds, 1948 (copies), 1948
Box 1
Deeds, 1952 (copies), 1952
Box 1
Deeds, 1959 (copies), 1959
Box 1
Duke Acquisition: Highland Hospital 5 Year Plan, circa 1940
Box 1
Duke Acquisition: Indenture, 1939
Box 1
Duke Acquisition: Inventory Transfer, 1946
Box 1
Duke Acquisition: Lease Agreement, 1945
Box 1
Duke Acquisition: Schedule of Real Property, undated
Box 1
Duke Acquisition: Statement, Carroll, R. S., 1939
Box 1
Financial Examinations (Audits), 1939-1944
Box 2
Financial Examinations (Audits), 1944-1945
Box 2
Financial Examinations (Audits), 1946
Box 2
Financial Examinations (Audits), 1947
Box 2
Financial Examinations (Audits), 1948
Box 2
Financial Examinations (Audits), 1949-1952
Box 2
Financial Examinations (Audits), 1954
Box 2
Financial Statement Procedures (includes notes re: finances 1906-1941), 1906-1941, undated
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records (appraisal 1939), 1906-1939
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records (comparative and undated), 1939-1950
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records, 1944-1945, undated
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records, 1945-1946
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records, 1946-1947
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records, 1947-1948
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records, 1949
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records, 1950
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records, 1951
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records, 1952
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records, 1953
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records, 1954
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records, 1955
Box 2
Financial Statements and Records (appraisal 398 Montford Avenue), 1956
Box 2
History of Highland Hospital (various sources), 1939-1964
Box 2
Insurance, 1944
Box 2
Insurance, 1947-1948
Box 2
Insurance, 1948-1951, undated
Box 2
Insurance, 1949
Box 2
Insurance, 1950
Box 2
Insurance, 1951
Box 2
Insurance, 1952
Box 2
Insurance, 1953, undated
Box 2
Insurance, Carroll-Potter Hall, 1955
Box 2
Insurance, Inspection Report, 1949
Box 2
Medical Director's Reports, 1945-1946, 1949-1953
Box 2
Minutes and Board Correspondence, 1944-1945
Box 2
Minutes and Board Correspondence, 1946-1947
Box 2
Minutes and Board Correspondence, 1948-1950
Box 2
Minutes and Board Correspondence, 1951-1953
Box 2
Minutes and Board Correspondence, 1954
Box 2
Physical Plant Upgrades and Repairs (notes, correspondence), 1948
Box 2
Promotional Material: Highland Highlights Magazine, 1972-1973, 1978
Box 2
Promotional Material and Information for Patients (brochures), 1946-1948, circa 1970s
Box 2
Promotional Material and Information for Patients (fees, policies), 1946-1948
Box 2
Promotional Material: Residency Training Program Duke Psychiatry, 1973
Box 2
Smoking Regulations, circa 1940s
Box 2

2. Records Pertaining to Sale, 1978-1981

Series Scope and Contents: Includes appraisals, building summary and plans, clippings, a chronology of sale, correspondence, and a press release. The record dates range from 1978-1981.

Appraisal, August, 1978, 1978
Box 2
Appraisal, October, 1978, 1978
Box 2
Appraisal Review, 1979-1980
Box 2
Building Summary and Plans, circa 1978
Box 2
Clippings, 1980-1981
Box 2
Correspondence, 1978-1979
Box 2
Joint Commission Statements of Construction, 1979
Box 2
Press Release and Chronology of Sale, 1980
Box 2

3. Blueprints, Maps, and Architectural Plans, 1938-1979

Series Scope and Contents: Includes evidence of hospital complex layout, plant improvements, plans for building construction, land deals, and evidence of expansion by way of comparison. Records date from 1938 to 1979.

Beaverdam Sheet no 38: Proposed Telephone Lines, 1949
Box Map Folder 1
Map of 40 Acre Tract of Highland Hospital, 1950
Box Map Folder 1
New Central Building and Women's Building: 3rd Floor, 1938-1939
Box Map Folder 1
New Central Building and Women's Building: 4th Floor, 1938-1939
Box Map Folder 1
New Central Building and Women's Building: Partial Plan 1st and 2nd Floors, 1938-1939
Box Map Folder 1
Property Duke University, Wards 2, 3, and 9, Asheville, Beaverdam Township, 1978-1979
Box Map Tube 1
Proposed Building Zillicoa Street: Area Calculation Plans (colorized), 1953
Box Map Folder 1
Proposed Building Zillicoa Street: Ground and First Floor Finish Schedules (2 sheets bound), 1953
Box Map Folder 1
Proposed Building Zillicoa Street: Main and Lower Level Floor Plans and Elevation from Zillicoa Street (3 sheets bound), 1953
Box Map Folder 1
Proposed Building Zillicoa Street: Proposed 50 Bed Building, SW Perspective, Plot Plan, Ground and First Level Plans, Elevations (5 sheets bound), 1953
Box Map Folder 1
Proposed Building Zillicoa Street: Scale Elevation from Zillicoa Street, 1953
Box Map Folder 1
Proposed Building Zillicoa Street: Scale Elevation from Zillicoa Street, 1953
Box Map Folder 1
Proposed Building Zillicoa Street: Scale Elevation from Zillicoa Street, 1953
Box Map Folder 1
Proposed Building Zillicoa Street: Scale Elevation from Zillicoa Street, 1953
Box Map Folder 1
Proposed Building Zillicoa Street: Scale Elevation from Zillicoa Street, 1953
Box Map Folder 1
Proposed Building Zillicoa Street: Scale Elevation from Zillicoa Street (colorized), 1953
Box Map Folder 1
Proposed Building Zillicoa Street: Scale Site Plan, Ground and Main Floor Plans July, 1953 (3 sheets bound), 1953
Box Map Folder 1
Rumbough Tract Hand Drawn Map (Robert Tucker), 1952
Box Map Folder 1
Rumbough Tract Survey Map, 1952
Box Map Folder 1

Historical Note

Highland Hospital was a residential psychiatric hospital located in Asheville, North Carolina, founded by Robert S. Carroll in 1904. In 1939, Carroll offered to give the hospital to Duke University. Directorship of the hospital was assumed by Duke University in September 1944 under the umbrella of the newly established Department of Neuropsychiatry (now the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences).

Highland Hospital utilized contemporary techniques such as shock therapy in the treatment of mental illnesses, depression, and substance abuse problems. Although it functioned mainly as a regional provider, it attracted elite clientele from around the country. The hospital advertised itself as "an institution employing all rational methods in the treatment of nervous habit, and mental cases: especially emphasizing the natural curative agents -- rest, climate, water, diet, work, and play".

Direct administration of the hospital included a president, medical director, business manager, and treasurer. Members of Duke University School of Medicine faculty worked on staff. Resident physicians were employed as psychotherapists, along with nurses, dieticians, avocational therapists, occupational therapists, and attendants. Over 100 other workers handled other duties.

The aesthetically pleasing hospital complex consisted of several buildings each equipped to serve the needs of parts of the patient population. Around 1944 it included the Central Building, Oak Lodge, Brushwood Bungalow, and Highland Hall. The Central Building (Women's Building) was designed by Robert S. Carroll in 1938-1939. It contained an assembly hall, hydrotherapy and culinary departments, examination/treatment rooms, and offices. The Central Building was badly damaged by fire in 1948. Oak Lodge was created mainly for male patients. It offered a large clubroom, woodsy views, and large porches. Brushwood Bungalow was intended for patients to occupy private, exclusive suites. Patient rooms and suites were also located within Highland Hall. Another building, the Homewood, offered a place for convalescing patients to receive special education and close observation. As more of the surrounding property was acquired more buildings were added including staff housing and Carroll-Potter Hall. The records indicate constant maintenance and plans for expansion between the 1930s and the 1950s.

Duke University Medical Center sold Highland Hospital in 1980 to Psychiatric Institutes of America.

Subject Headings

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Highland Hospital Papers, Duke University Medical Center Archives.

Acquisitions Information

Accession A2004.016 (transferred, April 2004)

Processing Information

Processed by Archives staff: April 2005; encoded by Emily Glenn: July 2005; updated by Dawne Howard Lucas: January 2009; reprocessed by Elizabeth DuRocher: October 2017

Related Material

  • Stuart Sessoms Records. Duke University Medical Center Archives.
  • Richard S. Lyman Papers. Duke University Medical Center Archives.
  • A. S. Brower Papers. Duke University Archives.